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有个宇宙的小知识英语

发布时间:2021-05-07 10:27:09 浏览:

  Cosmic Radiation Cosmic radiation and air travel Cosmic radiation is part of our natural environment, and we are constantly exposed to a certain amount of ionizing radiation. Radiation originating from outer space and the sun is called cosmic radiation and contributes about 13% of the background radiation level on Earth (a greater part is due to radon). Special features of cosmic radiation Cosmic radiation is a complex mixture of charged and neutral particles, some of them generated when primary particles from space interact with the earth's atmosphere. This complexity also leads to difficulties in measuring radiation doses from cosmic radiation, but physicists have developed sophisticated approaches to deal with this situation. For the human exposure situation one feature of cosmic radiation is of particular importance: a large percentage of the effective radiation dose from cosmic radiation is due to neutrons of different energy levels. Neutrons are subatomic particles which - when compared to X-rays or Gamma rays - cause more biological damage per dose unit. Exposure during flying As a rule, cosmic radiation levels rise with increasing altitude (up to about 20 km above ground). The actual radiation level is influenced by a number of factors, most importantly through the shielding provided by the earth's atmosphere. The overall effect for flight crew and travellers is an increased radiation exposure during flights as compared to staying on the ground. Flight crew passes up to 1000 hours per year on board of flying planes, which leads to annual effective radiation doses in the range of 2 to 5 milliSievert (mSv) for most crew. Occasional travellers obtain a fraction of this value through less frequent leisure or occupational flights. In comparison, the natural background radiation amounts to 2 to 3 mSv per year at most geographical locations worldwide. Cosmic radiation and health A series of studies concerning health issues associated with cosmic radiation has been conducted in the past few years. The WHO Information Sheet summarizes the current knowledge and ongoing research activities, and gives target-group specific recommendations on actions concerning cosmic radiation. 这绝对是关于宇宙的,采纳我的啊。

  The universe is a vast space and the existence of various objects and diffuse material. The universe is the material world, it is in constant movement and development. "Huainan Zi. Original training" note: "the Quartet on Yue Yu, from ancient to modern times, universe, heaven and earth to yu." The universe is a general term for all things. For thousands of years, scientists have been exploring the universe is what time, how to form. Until now, scientists believe, the universe is composed of an explosion occurred about 15000000000 years ago.。

  If you go out sometimes at night,you'll see the moon hight up in the sky. the moon is far away from the earth.But it is our nearest neighbor in space . In 1996 two Americans visited it by spaceship . It was one of the most exciting momenys of that year.The sky looks black from the moonand you'll see the earth up in the sky.You will also see many ,many stars.You can't find any living things there. It's too hot in the dayand too cold at night.And there's no air or water there.Noyhing can live on it.It is difficult for men to walk on the moon.Everything becomes much lighter.You can jump much higher on the moon than on the earth.If you throw a ball,it would fly very far.It's very interesting to walk on the moon. 如果你有时在晚上出去,你会见到月球高挂在天上。

  月球离地球很远,但它是太空上离我们最近的邻居。1996年,两位美国人乘飞船上了月球。

  那是那年最令人兴奋的时刻之一。在月球上看天空很黑,你会看见地球挂在天空。

  你还会看见很多星星。你在那找不到任何生物。

  那里早上太热,晚上太冷。那里没有水。

  没有人可以在那生存。人类在月球上很难走路。

  任何东西会变得更轻。你在月球上可以跳得比在地球上高。

  你如果在那打球,球会飞得很远。在月球上走很有趣。

  宇宙 universe;cosmos 宇宙的诞生 我们现在观察到的宇宙,其边界大约有100多亿光年。

  它由众多的星系所组成。地球是太阳系的一颗普通行星,而太阳系是银河系中一颗普通恒星。

  我们所观察到恒星、行星、慧星、星系等是怎么产生的呢? 宇宙学说认为,我们所观察到的宇宙,在其孕育的初期,集中于一个很小、温度极高、密度极大的原始火球。在150亿年到200亿年前,原始火球发生大爆炸,从此开始了我们所在的宇宙的诞生史。

  宇宙原始大爆炸后0.01秒,宇宙的温度大约为1000亿度。物质存在的主要形式是电子、光子、中微子。

  以后,物质迅速扩散,温度迅速降低。大爆炸后1秒钟,下降到100亿度。

  大爆炸后14秒,温度约30亿度。35秒后,为3亿度,化学元素开始形成。

  温度不断下降,原子不断形成。宇宙间弥漫着气体云。

  他们在引力的作用下,形成恒星系统,恒星系统又经过漫长的演化,成为今天的宇宙。 物质现象的总和。

  广义上指无限多样、永恒发展的物质世界,狭义上指一定时代观测所及的最大天体系统。后者往往称作可观测宇宙、我们的宇宙,现在相当于天文学中的“总星系”。

  2003年2月份,美国国家航空航天局曾向全世界公布他们有关宇宙年龄的研究成果。根据其公布的资料显示,宇宙年龄应该为137亿岁。

  2003年11月份,国际天体物理学研究小组宣称,宇宙的确切年龄应该是141亿岁。地球的形成大约是距今45亿年。

  词源考察 在中国古籍中最早使用宇宙这个词的是《庄子·齐物论》。“宇”的含义包括各个方向,如东西南北的一切地点。

  “宙”包括过去、现在、白天、黑夜,即一切不同的具体时间。战国末期的尸佼说:“四方上下曰宇,往古来今曰宙。”

  “宇”指空间,“宙”指时间,“宇宙”就是时间和空间的统一。后来“宇宙”一词便被用来指整个客观实在世界。

  与宇宙相当的概念有“天地”、“乾坤”、“六合”等,但这些概念仅指宇宙的空间方面。《管子》的“宙合”一词,“宙”指时间,“合”(即“六合”)指空间,与“宇宙”概念最接近。

  在西方,宇宙这个词在英语中叫cosmos,在俄语中叫кocMoc ,在德语中叫kosmos ,在法语中叫cosmos。它们都源自希腊语的κoσμoζ,古希腊人认为宇宙的创生乃是从浑沌中产生出秩序来,κoσμoζ其原意就是秩序。

  但在英语中更经常用来表示“宇宙”的词是universe。此词与universitas有关。

  在中世纪,人们把沿着同一方向朝同一目标共同行动的一群人称为universitas。在最广泛的意义上,universitas 又指一切现成的东西所构成的统一整体,那就是universe,即宇宙。

  universe和cosmos常常表示相同的意义,所不同的是,前者强调的是物质现象的总和,而后者则强调整体宇宙的结构或构造。 宇宙观念的发展 宇宙结构观念的发展 远古时代,人们对宇宙结构的认识处于十分幼稚的状态,他们通常按照自己的生活环境对宇宙的构造作了幼稚的推测。

  在中国西周时期,生活在华夏大地上的人们提出的早期盖天说认为,天穹像一口锅,倒扣在平坦的大地上;后来又发展为后期盖天说,认为大地的形状也是拱形的。公元前7世纪 ,巴比伦人认为,天和地都是拱形的,大地被海洋所环绕,而其中央则是高山。

  古埃及人把宇宙想象成以天为盒盖、大地为盒底的大盒子,大地的中央则是尼罗河。古印度人想象圆盘形的大地负在几只大象上,而象则站在巨大的龟背上,公元前7世纪末,古希腊的泰勒斯认为,大地是浮在水面上的巨大圆盘,上面笼罩着拱形的天穹。

  最早认识到大地是球形的是古希腊人。公元前6世纪,毕达哥拉斯从美学观念出发,认为一切立体图形中最美的是球形,主张天体和我们所居住的大地都是球形的。

  这一观念为后来许多古希腊学者所继承,但直到1519~1522年,葡萄牙的F.麦哲伦率领探险队完成了第一次环球航行后 ,地球是球形的观念才最终证实。 公元2世纪,C.托勒密提出了一个完整的地心说。

  这一学说认为地球在宇宙的中央安然不动,月亮、太阳和诸行星以及最外层的恒星天都在以不同速度绕着地球旋转。为了说明行星视运动的不均匀性,他还认为行星在本轮上绕其中心转动,而本轮中心则沿均轮绕地球转动。

  地心说曾在欧洲流传了1000多年。1543年,N.哥白尼提出科学的日心说,认为太阳位于宇宙中心,而地球则是一颗沿圆轨道绕太阳公转的普通行星。

  1609年,J.开普勒揭示了地球和诸行星都在椭圆轨道上绕太阳公转,发展了哥白尼的日心说,同年,G.伽利略则率先用望远镜观测天空,用大量观测事实证实了日心说的正确性。1687年,I.牛顿提出了万有引力定律,深刻揭示了行星绕太阳运动的力学原因,使日心说有了牢固的力学基础。

  在这以后,人们逐渐建立起了科学的太阳系概念。 在哥白尼的宇宙图像中,恒星只是位于最外层恒星天上的光点。

  1584年,G.布鲁诺大胆取消了这层恒星天,认为恒星都是遥远的太阳。18世纪上半叶,由于E.哈雷对恒星自行的发展和J.布拉得雷对恒星遥远距离的科学估计,布鲁诺的推测得到了越来越多人的赞同。

  18世纪中叶,T.赖特、I.康德和J.H.朗伯推测说,布满全天的恒星和银河构成了一个巨大的天体系统。F.W.赫歇尔首创用取样统。

  The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. Based on observations of the portion of the Universe that is observable, physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and events which occur, as a single system corresponding to a mathematical model.

  The generally accepted scientific theory which describes the origin and evolution of the Universe is Big Bang cosmology, which describes the expansion of space from an extremely hot and dense state of unknown characteristics. The Universe underwent a rapid period of cosmic inflation that flattened out nearly all initial irregularities in the energy density; thereafter the universe expanded and became steadily cooler and less dense. Minor variations in the distribution of mass resulted in hierarchical segregation of the features that are found in the current universe; such as clusters and superclusters of galaxies. There are more than one hundred billion (1011) galaxies in the Universe, each containing hundreds of billions of stars, with each star containing about 1057 atoms of hydrogen.

  Universe Where do we come from? How did the universe begin?Why is the universe the way it is? How will it end? All my life, I have been fascinated by the big questions that face us, and have tried to find scientific answers to them.If, like me, you have looked at the stars, and tried to make sense of what you see, you too have started to wonder what makes the universe exist. The questions are clear, and deceptively simple. But the answers have always seemed well beyond our reach. Until nOW. The ideas which had grown over two thousand years of observation have had to be radically re- vised. In less than a hundred years, we have found a new way to think of ourselves. From sitting at the center of the universe, we now find ourselves orbiting an average-sized sun, which is just one of millions of stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. And our galaxy itself is just one of billions of galaxies, in a universe that is infinite and expanding. But this is far from the end of a long history of inquiry.Huge questions remain to be answered, before we can hope to have a complete picture of the universe we live in. I want you to share my excitement at the discoveries,past and present, which have revolutionized the way we think. From the Big Bang to black holes, from dark matter to a possible Big Crunch, our image of the universe today is full of strange sounding ideas, and remarkable truths. The story of how we arrived at this picture is the story of learning to understand what we see. 宇宙 我们来自何方?宇宙如何开始?为什么宇宙是这样的?它将如何结束? 我一生都迷恋于我们所面临的这些大问题并试图找到他们科学的答案。

  如果你曾像我一样观察过星星,想了解你看见的东西,你也已经对宇宙的起源产生了好奇。这些问题很清楚,其简单却是假象。

  问题的答案总是遥不可及。直到现在。

  过去两千多年的观察所孕育出来的观点不得不更改一新。在不到一百年的时间里,我们找到了审视我们自己的新方法。

  过去我们自认为是宇宙的中心,现在发觉我们围绕一颗体积中等的太阳在转,而太阳只是银河系中数百万颗恒星中的一颗。而我们的星系又只是数百万个星系中的一个,存在于无穷无尽、不断扩展的宇宙中。

  但这远没有解决我们长久以来的疑问。很多重大问题尚未得到解决,更别说要完全了解我们生活的宇宙的全貌。

  我希望你能分享我对过去及现在的发现的兴奋之情,因为这些发现改变了我们的思考方式。从创世大爆炸到黑洞,从黑色物质到可能出现的大坍缩,我们今天的宇宙观充满前所未知的观点和引人注目的真知灼见。

  我们形成这样的宇宙观的过程也就是我们学会理解耳闻目睹的一切的过程。

  Gaze upwards on a dark night, and you will see the 'Milky Way', a glowing ribbon made up of many individual stars. This is our first clue to the fact that that stars are not uniformly distributed throughout space, but clustered together to form galaxies.

  Galaxies can vary in size between a hundred thousand and three thousand billion solar masses, and can be broadly split into different classes, depending on their shape. Our own Milky Way Galaxy contains about two hundred billion stars. It is a spiral shape, which is why, when viewed from our position about two thirds of the way along one of the arms, it appears as a band across the sky.

  Gazing out into the Universe reveals thousands upon thousands of galaxies. These galaxies tend to be grouped together in clusters, and these clusters in turn are grouped into superclusters. It appears the Universe has structure on many different scales.

  1.Back to School It's the first day of school. Mike wants to go back to school. He wants to see his friends. He wants to meet his new teacher. Mike gets up early in the morning. He washes and eats his breakfast. Then he rides his bike to school. He sees his friends on the playground. He plays hide-and-seek with them. In the classroom, Mike meets his new maths teacher. Her name is Mrs. Green. Mike likes Mrs Green. She can speak English very well. He thinks she is a nice teacher. 2. One day,a monkey drove his car near a lake.Sudden,he saw a tiger under a tree.The tiger saw him,too.The tiger ran very fast at the monkey.The monkey was very afraid and he and his car fell into the lake.The monkey couldn't swim and he shouted.A rabbit came and he jumped into the lake.The rabbit swam to the monkey but did not help him.Both of them shouted for help.Luckily,a giraffe came along.He was very tall.He helped the rabbit and the monkey. 3.Mike's Family Mike comes from America. He is twelve. His father Mr. Brown works in a big shop in Beijing. Mike has a sister. Her name is Kate. She is only four. It is Saturday today. Mike's family is all at home. Mr. Brown is sitting in a chair and reading today's newspaper. Mrs. Brown is out of the house; she is watering the flowers. Is Mike with his mother? No, he is cleaning his new bike. Where is Kate? She is in her room. She is playing with her cat. What a happy family! 4 How time flies ,It has past half an month since beginning of the summer holiday . As the weather getting hotter and hotter ,my parent and me go to the seaside .Last week we are go to the Xiamen.It's a beautiful city , bule sky and bule sea .The Xiamen is an island neal the Taiwan .From top of the Riguan rock we can see jinmen island . We spent a happy day in Xiamen 5 My family I love my family, because I have a happy family. My father is an English teacher. His name is Jacky. He is thirty-eight. He likes playing basketball. What's my mother job? Is she a teacher? Yes, you're right! My mother is very kind and nice, she is thirty-seven. My mother is always laborious work. I love my parents! On Saturday and Sunday, I often go to the library and play the piano, My father go to play basketball. Sometimes, we watch TV and listen to music at home. I love my family. Because I'm very happy to live with my parents together 6 Yesterday was my birthday, so some of my classmates sent me presents. Mother prepared a tea party for me. I invited all of them to come and take part in it. The tea party began at half past six. There were cold drinks and refreshments. We ate, talked and laughed. We felt that we were the happiest men in the world. Time passed quickly. In a twinkling, the clock on the wall struck nine. We could not but say “Good-bye” to one another. 7 There is a big bed , a small desk , a shelf and a closet in my room. The bed is near the desk . There is a shelf near the closet too . Many good books are in the shelf . I like the books very much . Oh , yes , There is a big board on the wall . I often write and draw pictures on the board . Oh , My bedroom is too beautiful . I like it very much . Do you like my room? Can you tell me about your room , please ? 够了吧。

  有个宇宙的小知识英语

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